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Q&A

General Q&A about Linux and Unix-like operating systems

Filters (None)
66%
+2 −0
Systemd unit needs to start at boot but wait for network

I have a systemd unit that does some stuff on the internet. Sometimes this gets fired at startup. I want to make sure it's delayed until the computer is connected to the internet. In my notes I fo...

1 answer  ·  posted 1d ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 14h ago by Iizuki‭

50%
+0 −0
Systemd service status if ExecStop or ExecStopPost fails?

Will the overall unit status be failed if either ExecStop or ExecStopPost fail? I would expect it to be so, but the documentation isn't very explicit about it.

1 answer  ·  posted 1d ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 1d ago by Iizuki‭

60%
+1 −0
Moving the filesystem root to a different partition and booting from it

My primary drive is partitioned basically like so (only roughly to scale): / /home junk v v v |xx###############...

1 answer  ·  posted 5d ago by Karl Knechtel‭  ·  last activity 3d ago by Iizuki‭

71%
+3 −0
How to count the lines of a file?

How to get the number of lines in a file? I.e. for a file like this: Line one Line 2 Final line I would like to do something like this: $ count-lines /path/to/the/file/above 3

2 answers  ·  posted 2mo ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 8d ago by Michael‭

77%
+5 −0
What are the concrete security risks of forcibly terminating a process?

I'm using the Gnome System Monitor in Linux Mint. Whenever I attempt to "End" or "Kill" a process, I am given this warning via a modal dialog (emphasis mine): Killing a process may destroy data,...

2 answers  ·  posted 7mo ago by Karl Knechtel‭  ·  last activity 9d ago by Kamil Maciorowski‭

71%
+3 −0
How to convert json to yaml?

How to convert a json file to yaml? Technically json is already valid yaml, but I'm talking about the characteristic easy-to-read yaml formatting with indentation and minimal quotes.

1 answer  ·  posted 9d ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 9d ago by Iizuki‭

71%
+3 −0
How do I migrate my main filesystem to a new drive?

I want to switch hard drives. How do I migrate my root FS from the drive it's on, to the new one, so that everything is exactly as it is?

3 answers  ·  posted 12d ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 9d ago by matthewsnyder‭

50%
+0 −0
Pacman list files installed by a package

How to show a list of files belonging to a package with pacman?

1 answer  ·  posted 9d ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 9d ago by Iizuki‭

50%
+0 −0
Get notifications to dunst when systemd units fail

How can I get notifications to dunst when systemd units fail?

1 answer  ·  posted 13d ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 12d ago by Iizuki‭

60%
+1 −0
Manually trigger cron jobs

Do any of the cron implementations allow you to manually trigger cron jobs (stuff in your crontab) right now, in the exact same manner as they would have when triggered on their usual schedule, exc...

0 answers  ·  posted 14d ago by matthewsnyder‭

50%
+0 −0
How to export public GPG key?

GPG stores keys inside an internal database of some sort. How to export your public key in the familiar -----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- format so that it can be imported to other software? E.g...

1 answer  ·  posted 14d ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 14d ago by Iizuki‭

GPG
50%
+0 −0
How to get remote container image digest with skopeo?

How to get the (index) digest of a remote container image with skopeo? So this would be your normal container image in a container registry. E.g. in docker.io

1 answer  ·  posted 15d ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 14d ago by Iizuki‭

66%
+2 −0
==> WARNING: Possibly missing firmware for module: 'foo'

When I create the initramfs, I sometimes see messages like: ==> WARNING: Possibly missing firmware for module: 'xhci_pci' I get many for different modules. What do they mean? Should I in...

1 answer  ·  posted 22d ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 16d ago by Iizuki‭

77%
+5 −0
What is cat abuse/useless use of cat?

Sometimes I share Unix commands online, and people chastise me for "useless use of cat" (UUOC) or "cat abuse". My cat is quite comfy and doing very well, thank you. What are they talking about?

3 answers  ·  posted 27d ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 17d ago by Canina‭

cli
75%
+4 −0
How to run a command on a list of files?

Suppose I have a list of files on standard input. These may be the output of find, cat filelist.txt or something else. How can I run a command on each file in turn?

5 answers  ·  posted 10mo ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 18d ago by trueframe‭

71%
+3 −0
Why/how can distro support lifetimes exceed the lifetime of their dependencies (such as Python)?

Motivating example: my Mint 20.3 distribution offers long-term support until April 2025, which matches the "standard support" offered for the upstream Ubuntu (20.04 "Jammy Jellyfish"). However, the...

2 answers  ·  posted 21d ago by Karl Knechtel‭  ·  last activity 18d ago by matthewsnyder‭

71%
+3 −0
Can a malicious party add false recipients (who are listed but can't really decrypt) to an encrypted GPG message?

In gpg(1), one normally adds recipients of an encrypted message with --recipient. Those recipients will be able to decrypt the message, and their key ID will appear unencrypted, so anyone will kno...

0 answers  ·  posted 22d ago by alx‭  ·  edited 21d ago by alx‭

GPG
71%
+3 −0
How do you remap mouse buttons?

How can I remap buttons on my mouse, especially for more exotic ones like MMO mice?

3 answers  ·  posted 3mo ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 25d ago by Michael‭

60%
+1 −0
Group and users seem to disagree about whether the users are in the group

On my current setup (running Linux Mint 20.3 Cinnamon), I have an administrative user and several ordinary users. I intend for all of these users to be in the same group, which happens to have the ...

0 answers  ·  posted 26d ago by Karl Knechtel‭

66%
+2 −0
How do you generate arbitrary random numbers from /dev/random?

Suppose I want to get random numbers from /dev/random with basic CLI tools. Is there a way to do it, that's easier to type and read than python -c 'import random; print(100 + 200*random.random())'?...

1 answer  ·  posted 27d ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 27d ago by r~~‭

71%
+3 −0
What are non-POSIX shells and what's the point of them?

I've been learning some Linux and I finally feel like I can find my way around the command line. But now I hear people say there are other, "non-POSIX" kinds of shell, with different semantics. Wha...

1 answer  ·  posted 27d ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 27d ago by matthewsnyder‭

60%
+1 −0
How do you generate random strings from /dev/random?

Of course every language has some kind of random library... But can you generate custom random strings with just basic CLI tools? For example, we have /dev/random which provides a stream of random...

1 answer  ·  posted 27d ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 27d ago by matthewsnyder‭

47%
+9 −10
Which Linux system to use?

Usually, many new users are confused when it comes to deciding which Linux to use. After trying out some distros, they don't know which one to use next. Which Linux is for beginners, intermediates ...

6 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 28d ago by matthewsnyder‭

60%
+1 −0
Can you put systemd units under a custom path?

The systemd manual gives a list of path where systemd looks for unit files. However, I want to isolate my units in a path of my own choosing. Is it possible to configure systemd to add some path t...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  edited 28d ago by matthewsnyder‭

60%
+1 −0
Prettify XML in a shell

How to pretty print XML in a shell? I have command-line tool which outputs XML in a single line, totally unreadable. I would like something to pipe this into, to turn it into human readable XML wi...

1 answer  ·  posted 1mo ago by Iizuki‭  ·  edited 1mo ago by Iizuki‭

71%
+3 −0
How to invert command exit code?

How to apply a logical not to a shell command, e.g. in a Bash script? So if the command exited with 0 (success) I would like it to be changed to a non-zero value, and if it exited with a non-zero ...

1 answer  ·  posted 6mo ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 1mo ago by Iizuki‭

60%
+1 −0
Is there a way to automatically normalize paths when extracting RARs?

I use unrar to extract rar archives sometimes: UNRAR 6.24 freeware Copyright (c) 1993-2023 Alexander Roshal Sometimes the archive root has several files, so if I do unrar x foo.rar it will...

1 answer  ·  posted 1mo ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 1mo ago by Karl Knechtel‭

66%
+2 −0
Solr crashes on startup with segmentation fault

I am trying to run Solr 9.5.0 on Windows Subsystem For Linux 2. It crashes with a Segmentation Fault and does not start. I can run it on Windows without an issue. Java version on WSL2: 17 Java ve...

1 answer  ·  posted 1mo ago by tarhalda‭  ·  last activity 1mo ago by tarhalda‭

50%
+0 −0
How to add a new drive to a BTRFS filesystem?

BTRFS is capable of spanning over multiple drives. How to add one more to an existing filesystem?

1 answer  ·  posted 1mo ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 1mo ago by Iizuki‭

75%
+4 −0
How to extract string from file, run filter, and replace in file with new value?

TASK I am coding up ebooks to a specific standard, and have a script that converts a string into the correct titlecase for this publisher. When working with some public domain source files, one of...

4 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by David‭  ·  last activity 1mo ago by Mithical‭

71%
+3 −0
NetworkManager can't open certificate file when trying to connect to VPN

I want to connect to my university network via OpenVPN under Fedora GNOME. I imported the openvpn configuration provided by the university in the Network Manager GUI and specified the user certifi...

0 answers  ·  posted 1mo ago by adonias‭  ·  edited 1mo ago by Quasímodo‭

66%
+2 −0
What are the %U and %u parameters in desktop files?

Desktop files always have either %u or %U as an argument for the program being launched. E.g. here's a line from my firefox.desktop: Exec=/usr/lib/firefox/firefox %u What does it mean?

1 answer  ·  posted 1mo ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 1mo ago by Iizuki‭

71%
+3 −0
How do I diagnose TLS errors?

For reasons of my own, I have services on my LAN which use HTTPS and I create my own certificates for these. Over the years, the usage of TLS has evolved considerably. Many features that were once...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 1mo ago by Michael‭

62%
+3 −1
init process play a role in the booting of Linux

How does the init process play a role in the booting of Linux?

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by trueframe‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Mithical‭

71%
+3 −0
How to find your public IP address from command-line?

ip a command will conveniently show the addresses assigned to your network interfaces, but oftentimes this is not what the internet sees your machine as. So how to find your public IP address from...

3 answers  ·  posted 4mo ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Michael‭

66%
+2 −0
How to debug audio issues with JACK on Linux

I am trying to debug an issue with audio playback in MuseScore. During this process, I realised that I had/have no clue about audio playback in Linux (or in general for that matter). I already le...

0 answers  ·  posted 2mo ago by mr Tsjolder‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by mr Tsjolder‭

75%
+4 −0
What's the point of faillock?

On a default Arch install, faillock makes it so that if you enter the sudo password wrong too many times, even the correct password will be rejected until the timer is up. At the same time, you ca...

0 answers  ·  posted 2mo ago by matthewsnyder‭

50%
+0 −0
ldapsearch: how to ignore certificate?

How to ignore server certificate when using ldapsearch command-line tool? Of course this isn't something you should be doing regularly, but it would be a handy asset for troubleshooting.

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by Iizuki‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Iizuki‭

66%
+2 −0
Find out which process is using a port

Sometimes your programs fail because the network port they are trying to use is already in use by some other process. How to find out what this other process is?

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Canina‭

66%
+2 −0
What is synchronization in Wine?

Wine has options for "Synchronization", like "Esync" or "Fsync". What do these actually do? What is the purpose of such an option? What is the impact to normal usage of a Windows program in Wine?

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by matthewsnyder‭

60%
+1 −0
An alternative to pacman sudo nag?

Some pacman functions require sudo. When I forget the sudo, you get: error: you cannot perform this operation unless you are root. I then have to press the keys: up, home, s, u, d, o, space, en...

2 answers  ·  posted 3mo ago by matthewsnyder‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by TowerOfTurtles‭

40%
+2 −4
Why does Linux use the sudo command?

Why does Linux use the sudo command?

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by catexotica‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by matthewsnyder‭

60%
+1 −0
How to use the gitignore file without git(1).

How can a file list be manually filtered with a gitignore file. I want to do the equivalent of git ls-files, but it should work even if I remove .git, so I can't use git(1). Currently, I'm doing ...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by alx‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by r~~‭

80%
+6 −0
How to forward SSH access of one machine, through another, to the rest of a network?

I have a setup with two Raspberry PIs, a CM3 module with only a USB connection to the outside, and the Pi4 with a lot of connectors. I set up things such that CM3 functions as USB Gadget, and once...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by CanisSomnolentus‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Michael‭

50%
+0 −0
What is Kmail running in the background?

When I run Kmail on i3, and then close it, it appears to continue running some stuff in the background. For example, I periodically get notifications about new mail from dunst, even though I have c...

0 answers  ·  posted 2mo ago by matthewsnyder‭

66%
+2 −0
Can rsync handle moves and renames?

Suppose I have a directory structure like ├── src │   ├── folder_a │   │   ├── file_w │   │   └── file_x │   ├── folder_b │   │   ├── file_y │   │   └── file_z and I back it up using rsyn...

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by Karl Knechtel‭  ·  edited 3mo ago by Karl Knechtel‭

71%
+3 −0
Can I make a compressed RAM drive and externally prepare a (pre-)compressed file to copy onto it?

I don't know what these things are called exactly in the Linux world. But there is the concept of a drive in RAM, to write files onto and read them like it was any disk drive. There is also the c...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by CanisSomnolentus‭  ·  edited 3mo ago by matthewsnyder‭

60%
+1 −0
How to find product and vendor names for xorg.conf

Problem How do I find product and vendor names for use with a xorg.conf file? Neither the xorg.conf nor the xinput manuals specify how to do this. xinput lists info, but the output lacks column ...

0 answers  ·  posted 3mo ago by mcp‭  ·  edited 3mo ago by mcp‭

50%
+0 −0
How to find user's id (UID)?

How to lookup user-id with the user's name? E.g. What's the UID of user linus?

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Iizuki‭

uid
66%
+2 −0
Show a timestamp on the right side of prompt when executing a command in ZSH

How to configure ZSH shell to print a timestamp on the right hand side of the prompt line when executing a command? I don't want to display the time prior to executing a command. Here's about how ...

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by Iizuki‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Iizuki‭

zsh